European Union

The Case Law of the European Court of Justice

November 7, 2009

Many of the socio-economic rights incorporated into the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (EU) have already been given recognition by the European Court of Justice (ECJ). In relation to the workings of the single market, throughout the history of the European Community (EC), it was not the case that its negative aspects […]

The EU’s External Relations Policy and Human Rights

October 25, 2009

Human rights are an important element in the external relations of the EU. They have become more significant after the Treaty of Maastricht which contains specific provisions dealing with human rights in the EU’s external relations. Over the years, the EU has pursued numerous actions and policies meant to protect and promote human rights in […]

Socio-economic Rights and the Single Market

October 18, 2009

There are two differing perspectives regarding European integration in the context of social and economic rights. On one hand, some view it simply as a triumph of economic freedom and competition. “In this light, the Treaty of Rome is conceived as an economic neo-liberal constitution whose aim is to protect market freedom from public power […]

Community Charter of Fundamental Social Rights of Workers

September 26, 2009

Until the 1980s, the focus of the EC regarding human rights primarily rested on civil and political rights, as in the overriding international context. However, the focus had shifted in the 1980s more towards the social dimension, which “was high on the European Council’s agenda at that time, as demonstrated by the declarations at the […]

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

September 18, 2009

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union was primarily intended for the purpose of making “the overriding importance and relevance of fundamental rights more visible to the Union’s citizens.”[1] This is expressly stated in the Preamble of the Charter, which ties this need to the growing changes in society, with particular reference to […]